• Q: What's the difference between USB 1.1, USB 2.0 and USB 3.0?

        

     USB 1.1
    The Universal Serial Bus is the most widely deployed PC peripheral interface in history, enabling simple plug and play connectivity for a wide variety of devices to enhance the computing experience. Developed to improve ease of use and provide flexible port expansion, the USB bus has become an indispensable computing technology. USB 1.1 provides support for two interface speeds: Low Speed at 1.5Mb/s and Full Speed at 12Mb/s. The two interface speeds target specific classes of devices to provide the most efficient and cost-effective interconnect solution. Low speed devices are typically interactive input devices such as keyboards, mice or game controllers. Full speed devices are typically application specific input devices such as microphones, cameras and printers. Despite the introduction of USB 2.0 and 3.0, USB 1.1 is still a very viable and usable option, depending on your application and speed requirements.

    USB 2.0
    The Universal Serial Bus is the most widely deployed PC peripheral interface in history, enabling simple plug and play connectivity for a wide variety of devices to enhance the computing experience. As PC’s and peripheral devices have added more processing bandwidth, performance and features, the USB 2.0 standard was developed to offer a complimentary high-speed transfer rate at 480Mb/s. Backwards compatible with the full speed and low speed transfer rates of USB 1.1, USB 2.0 delivers a significant bandwidth increase while maintaining the value added features that motivated the original USB development.

    Super Speed USB 3.0
    As technology innovation marches forward, new kinds of devices, media formats, and large inexpensive storage are converging. They require significantly more bus bandwidth to maintain the interactive experience users have come to expect. In addition, user applications demand a higher performance connection between the PC and these increasingly sophisticated peripherals. USB 3.0 addresses this need by adding an even higher transfer rate to match these new usage and devices. USB continues to be the answer to conncectivity for PC, Consumer Electronics, and Mobile architectures, It is a fast, bidirectional, low-cost, dynamically attachable interface that is consistent with the requirements of the PC platforms of today and tomorrow. SuperSpeed USB brings significant performance enhancements to the ubiquitous USB standard, while remaining compatible with the billions of USB enabled devices currently deployed in the market. SuperSpeed USB will deliver 10x the data transfer rate of Hi-Speed USB, as well as improved power efficiency. ? SuperSpeed USB has a 5 Gbps signaling rate offering 10x performance increase over Hi-Speed USB. ? SuperSpeed USB is a Sync-N-Go technology that minimizes user wait-time. ? SuperSpeed USB will provide Optimized Power Efficiency.No device polling and lower active and idle power requirements. ? SuperSpeed USB is backwards compatible with USB 2.0. Devices interoperate with USB 2.0 platforms. Hosts support USB 2.0 legacy devices. The USB 3.0 SuperSpeed specification has been ratified. The SuperSpeed specification provides the technical details to understand USB 3.0 requirements and design USB 3.0 compatible products and is available for download from the official USB website at
    www.usb.org/developers/docs/. Check our MilesTek’s complete line of USB products, http://www.milestek.com/search.asp?skw=ZZAVD

  • what 's SATA 1, SATA2 and SATA3 ?

        

    SATA revision 1.0 (SATA 1.5 Gbit/s)

    First-generation SATA interfaces, now known as SATA 1.5 Gbit/s, communicate at a rate of 1.5 Gbit/s, and do not support NCQ. Taking 8b/10b encoding overhead into account, they have an actual uncoded transfer rate of 1.2 Gbit/s (150 MB/s). The theoretical burst throughput of SATA 1.5 Gbit/s is similar to that of PATA/133, but newer SATA devices offer enhancements such as NCQ, which improve performance in a multitasking environment.

    During the initial period after SATA 1.5 Gbit/s finalization, adapter and drive manufacturers used a "bridge chip" to convert existing PATA designs for use with the SATA interface.[citation needed] Bridged drives have a SATA connector, may include either or both kinds of power connectors, and, in general, perform identically to their PATA equivalents. Most lack support for some SATA-specific features such as NCQ. Native SATA products quickly eclipsed bridged products with the introduction of the second generation of SATA drives.[citation needed]

    As of April 2010 the fastest 10,000 RPM SATA mechanical hard disk drives could transfer data at maximum (not average) rates of up to 157 MB/s, which is beyond the capabilities of the older PATA/133 specification and also exceeds a SATA 1.5 Gbit/s link.

    SATA revision 2.0 (SATA 3 Gbit/s)

    Second generation SATA interfaces running at 3.0 Gbit/s shipped in high volume by 2010, and were prevalent in all[citation needed] SATA disk drives and most PC and server chipsets. With a native transfer rate of 3.0 Gbit/s, and taking 8b/10b encoding into account, the maximum uncoded transfer rate is 2.4 Gbit/s (300 MB/s). The theoretical burst throughput of SATA 3.0 Gbit/s is roughly double that of SATA revision 1.

    All SATA data cables meeting the SATA spec are rated for 3.0 Gbit/s and will handle current mechanical drives without any loss of sustained and burst data transfer performance. However, high-performance flash drives exceed the SATA 3 Gbit/s transfer rate; this is addressed with the SATA 6 Gbit/s interoperability standard.

    SATA revision 3.0 (SATA 6 Gbit/s)

    Serial ATA International Organization presented the draft specification of SATA 6 Gbit/s physical layer in July 2008, and ratified its physical layer specification on August 18, 2008. The full 3.0 standard was released on May 27, 2009. It provides peak throughput of about 600 MB/s (Megabytes per second) including the protocol overhead (10b/8b coding with 10 bits to one byte). The 3.0 specification contains the following changes:

    6 Gbit/s for scalable performance

    Continued compatibility with SAS, including SAS 6 Gbit/s. "A SAS domain may support attachment to and control of unmodified SATA devices connected directly into the SAS domain using the Serial ATA Tunneled Protocol (STP)" from the SATA_Revision_3_0_Gold specification.

    Isochronous Native Command Queuing (NCQ) streaming command to enable isochronous quality of service data transfers for streaming digital content applications.

    An NCQ Management feature that helps optimize performance by enabling host processing and management of outstanding NCQ commands.

    Improved power management capabilities.

    A small low insertion force (LIF) connector for more compact 1.8-inch storage devices.

    A connector designed to accommodate 7 mm optical disk drives for thinner and lighter notebooks.

    Alignment with the INCITS ATA8-ACS standard.

    In general, the enhancements are aimed at improving quality of service for video streaming and high-priority interrupts. In addition, the standard continues to support distances up to one meter. The newer speeds may require higher power consumption for supporting chips, although improved process technologies and power management techniques may mitigate this. The later specification can use existing SATA cables and connectors, although it was reported in 2008 that some OEMs were expected to upgrade host connectors for the higher speeds.
    The later standard is backwards compatible with SATA 3 Gbit/s.

  • Q: What is MHL?

        

    Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is a proposed industry standard for a mobile audio/video interface for directly connecting mobile phones and other portable consumer electronics (CE) devices to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and displays. The MHL standard features a single cable with a low pin-count interface able to support up to 1080p high-definition (HD) video and digital audio while simultaneously charging the connected device.
    MHL is being developed by the MHL Consortium, a consortium of developers of mobile devices.

    Features

    The HDTV provides power to the connected device.
    Uses a single, thin cable to connect the mobile device to the HDTV.
    The HDTV remote will control the connected device with guaranteed mixed manufacturer interoperability (CEC).[1] (also see Silicon Image's press release about MHL on December 14, 2010). Note: The built-in RCP (Remote Control Protocol) function allows you to use the Remote Control of HDTV to operate the MHL mobile device through HDTV’s CEC function.
    1080p uncompressed HD video.
    8 channel (e.g., 7.1 surround sound) uncompressed audio.
    Supports High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP).
    MHL is connection agnostic (i.e., not tied to a specific type of hardware connector). The first implementations dual-purpose the most popular mobile connection (micro USB) and the most popular HDTV connection (HDMI). Other than the connectors being used, no USB nor HDMI technology is being used. It is exclusively MHL signalling through the connectors and over the cable. Other proprietary and custom connections are also allowed.
    By transporting the digital content in digital form, the full impact of the picture (whether still images or video) can be seen on HDTVs.

  • Q: what products could support MHL

        

    Silicon Image announced a family of chips supporting MHL including a transmitter, a bridge and a port processor.

    LG Electronics available on December 4, 2011 AT&T Wireless and LG Electronics Nitro HD (AT&T) / Optimus LTE (LTE carriers), a True HD AH-IPS panel display on the device with MHL output abilities for any TV equipped with HDMI input.

    Samsung announced at the 2011 Mobile World Congress that their Galaxy S II mobile devices feature MHL connections.

     HTC announced at the 2011 CTIA that their 'EVO 3D' mobile device supports MHL output and in addition that the HTC 'Sensation' will also have this capability, as well as its successor, the 'Sensation XE'. The HTC Rezound, which is a sister device to the Sensation XE also has the MHL port.

    Roku unveiled the 'Roku Streaming Stick' on January 4, 2012 in an official blog post entitled 'There’s a Better Way to Build a Smart TV'. The Streaming Stick is said to include everything comprised in a Roku player—built-in WiFi, processor, memory and software—and will deliver all the channels found on the Roku platform today.[18]
    The following retail products are known to have MHL technology available:


    Display Devices:

    LG:
    LM9600 HDTV
    LM8600 HDTV

    Samsung:
    UN55D8000YF, UN55D6300SF LED TV range.[19][20]
    46D7000 HDTV, 55D7000 HDTV, 60D7000 HDTV (Port 3)
    46D7900 HDTV, 55D7900 HDTV
    46D8000 HDTV, 55D8000 HDTV, 60D8000 HDTV, 65D8000 HDTV (Port 3)
    Series 7 Smart Station and HDTV Monitor
    Series 9 Smart Station and HDTV Monitor
    LED Monitors: S24B750V, S27B750V, S23B550V, S27B550V
    HDTV Monitors: T24B750V, T27B750V, T23B550V, T27B550V

    Toshiba:
    Regza WL800A LED TV range (one of the earliest TVs to ship with MHL).[21][22][19]
    46WL800A HDTV (Port 4)
    55WL800A HDTV (Port 4)
    40TL20 HDTV
    46TL20 HDTV
    42WL863 HDTV (Port 4)
    46WL863 HDTV
    55WL863 HDTV


    Mobile devices:
    Acer CloudMobile phone
    Galaxy Nexus phone
    HTC Amaze 4G phone
    HTC Flyer tablet
    HTC Rezound phone
    HTC Sensation phone
    HTC Sensation XE phone
    HTC Vivid phone
    HTC Sensation 4G phone
    HTC EVO 3D phone
    HTC EVO View 4G phone
    HTC Raider phone
    HTC Velocity phone
    HTC Flyer phone
    HTC JetStream phone
    HTC One S phone
    HTC One X phone
    Huawei Ascend P1 phone
    Huawei Ascend P1 S phone
    Huawei Ascend D Quad phone
    Huawei Ascend D Quad XL phone
    Huawei Ascend D1 phone
    LG Verizon Spectrum phone
    LG Optimus LTE phone
    LG Optimus LTE w/ NFC phone
    LG Nitro HD phone
    LG Prada phone
    LG Optimus Vu phone
    LG Optimus 4X HD phone
    LG Optimus 3D Max phone
    Lenovo S2 phone
    Meizu MX phone
    Pantech Vega LTE phone
    Samsung Epic 4G Touch phone
    Samsung Galaxy Nexus phone
    Samsung Galaxy Note phone/tablet
    Samsung Galaxy S II phone
    Samsung Galaxy S III phone
    Samsung Galaxy R phone
    Samsung Galaxy Tab tablet
    Samsung Infuse 4G phone (bundled with an MHL to HDMI adapter)
    Samsung Skyrocket HD phone
    Samsung TXT phone
    Sony Xperia GX phone
    ZTE PF200 phone

  • Q: What is the difference between a “Standard” HDMI cable and a “High-Speed” HDMI cable?

        

    Recently, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that cables would be tested as Standard or High-Speed cables.

    Standard (or “category 1”) HDMI cables have been tested to perform at speeds of 75Mhz or up to 2.25Gbps, which is the equivalent of a 720p/1080i signal.

    High Speed (or “category 2”) HDMI cables have been tested to perform at speeds of 340Mhz or up to 10.2Gbps, which is the highest bandwidth currently available over an HDMI cable and can successfully handle 1080p signals including those at increased color depths and/or increased refresh rates from the Source. High-Speed cables are also able to accommodate higher resolution displays, such as WQXGA cinema monitors (resolution of 2560 x 1600).

  • Q: What’s eSATAp(Power over eSATA)?

        


    In computing, eSATAp (also known as Power over eSATA, Power eSATA, eSATA/USB Combo, eSATA USB Hybrid Port (EUHP)) is a combination connection for external storage devices. A single eSATAp, eSATA or USB device can be plugged into an eSATAp port. The socket has keyed cutouts for both types of device to ensure that a connector can only be plugged in the right way round.

    Standard
    As the port is designed to work with both SATA and USB, neither organization has formally approved it. USB-IF states it does not support any connector used by other standards, these combo ports are to be used at your own risk, and SATA-IO(Serial ATA International Organisation), the organization responsible for the SATA specification, is as of 2011, working to define the eSATAp specification.

    Implementation
    SATA is a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives andoptical drives. eSATA is a SATA connector accessible from outside the computer, to provide a signal (but not power) connection for external storage devices.
    eSATAp combines the functionality of an eSATA and a USB port, and a source of power in a single connector. eSATAp can supply power at 5 V and 12 V.
    On a desktop computer the port is simply a connector, usually mounted on a bracket at the back accessible from outside the machine, connected to motherboardsources of SATA, USB, and power at 5 V and 12 V. No change is required to drivers, registry or BIOS settings and the USB support is independent of the SATA connection.
    If advanced functionality such as a port multiplier is required, a PCI Express add-on card can be used. If it has port multiplier support, an eSATAp port allows a user to connect to a multi-bay NAS (network attached storage) machine with multiple hard disks (HDD) using one eSATA cable.
    On many notebook computers only a limited amount of power at 5 V is available, and none at all at 12 V. Devices requiring more power than is available via the Expresscard, or an additional 12 V supply as required by most 3.5" or 5.25" drives, can be driven if an additional power supply is used.  Cables are available to both connect and power a SATA device from an eSATAp port (including 12V power if available)

    Compatibility
    eSATAp throughput is necessarily the same as SATA, and USB throughput is that of the USB version supported by the port (typically USB 3.0 or 2.0). eSATAp ports (bracket versions) can run at a theoretical maximum of 6 Gbit/s (bits per sec) and are backwards compatible with devices such as eSATA 3 Gbit/s (SATA Revision 2) and also at 1.5 Gbit/s (SATA Revision 1). The USB port is fully compatible with USB 5 Gbit/s (USB 3.0), USB 480 Mbit/s (USB 2.0) and USB 12 Mbit/s (1.1); USB 3.0 devices are compatible, but will operate at USB 2.0 speed if internal USB 3.0 connector is not connected.